IBASСтатья взята из: Kaрамян М., Головань С. История Большого Академического Словаря Русского Языка, стр. 29-41: Σίγμα: Лондон, Сан-Франциско, Акапулько, 2012.

The Russian academic normative language dictionary, a work which will be erected higher upon, enlarged, supplemented, elaborated, justified, finished, ended but never complete. Lexicography is a purely scientific project where miracles simply do not happen in either theoretical or practical aspects. It is a result of a laboriously collective effort of devotees in philological studies.

Joseph Rosenthal.


«Мы знаем, что ныне лежит на весах
И что совершается ныне.
Час мужества пробил на наших часах,
И мужество нас не покинет.
Не страшно под пулями мертвыми лечь,
Не горько остаться без крова,-
И мы сохраним тебя, русская речь,
Великое русское слово.
Свободным и чистым тебя пронесем,
И внукам дадим, и от плена спасем

–Анна Андреевна Ахматова (18891866).

It is an irrefutable fact, that explanatory dictionaries are intended for satisfying every educated person[2]. However, the nucleus of Russian lexicography and its fundamentals have always been Russian explanatory dictionaries which are multipurpose references on semantics, stylistics, grammar, phraseology, orthography, and in some cases, also pronunciation[3].

The history of generating classic academic definitive or explanatory dictionaries of the Russian language has been inseparably linked to a city on the banks of the river Neva, St. Petersburg.  Here, in 1783 a prominent reformer and visioneer of her time, Her Imperial Majesty, Catherine the Great discussed with Princess Dashkova the establishment of the Russian Academy to serve as a centre for gathering writers, scholars, social figures and the literati strata whose central task was going to be the question of formulating Russian grammar, cleansing the Russian language,  studying liberal arts, establishing rules of poetry, determining rhyming formulas, and mainly producing the Russian Dictionary. This was Catherine the Great’s sincere dream who herself wrote many articles for the dictionary.

The Russian Academy was founded and located here, in St. Petersburg to house the Department of Russian Language [Literature and Philology] in 1783. It was here that the first female president of the Russian Academy, Princess Dashkova by appointment to Catherine the Great, started her academic career. During the very first conference of the Russian Academy on October 21st she read the Imperial Declaration and the Constitution of the Russian Academy along with one of the most important and urgent points on the agenda of making the Russian Dictionary based on the  Theory of Three Styles by Mikhail Lomonosov.    Catherine Dashkova became the head of both Academies: the Russian Academy and Petersburg Academy of Sciences. She is still considered the first and last female president of an academy in the entire world.

     Some 58 years later on October 19th of 1841, 31 years after Princess Dashkova’s death, the Russian Academy was annexed with the Imperial Academy of Sciences [founded and established by Peter the Great in 1724] as the Second Branch to the Imperial Academy, Department of the Russian Language and Literature.  The Second Branch was a name, given to the Department of the Russian Language and Literature to distinguish it from the First Branch, the Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences; and the Third Branch, the Department of Historical and Philological Sciences.

To this present day, the Department of Dictionaries stands proudly as an independent subdivision of the Institute for Linguistic Studies under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences, formerly known as the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in the beginning — as the Russian Academy which was established to resemble the genuine function and the purpose of l’Académie française.


The Institute for Linguistic Studies was [re]established as of 1991 (previously known as the Leningrad Branch of the Institute for Lexicology, the Academy of Sciences of the USSR) under the auspices of the Russian Academy of Sciences[4]. At this location the largest corpus of the card index system of the Russian language, as the monumental achievement of a national significance, is still being catalogued, enlarged and digitalized.

It is not forgotten when a great Russian writer, Ivan Turgenev (18181883) said the following: «In times of doubtfulness, in times of distressful reverie about the fate of my fatherland, You are the only support and advocate, oh my great, mighty, righteous and free Russian Language! which appears melodious to  [the] Russian ear’”[5].

     The English polymath, and philologist by chance, of the XVIII century, Samuel Johnson (17091784) dedicated the following passage about lexicographers: “Among these unhappy mortals is the writer of dictionaries; who mankind have considered, not as the pupil, but, as the slave of science, the pioneer of literature, doomed only to remove rubbish and clear obstructions from the paths through which Learning and Genius press forward to conquest and glory, without bestowing a smile on the humble drudge that facilitates their progress. Every other author may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach, and even this negative recompense has yet been granted to very few”[6].

It has been almost two and a half centuries that serious lexicographical works have begun and are led by the Russian Academy to create definitive dictionaries of the Russian language.  Academic lexicography has established fundamental dictionaries for developing Russian lexicography by giving its complete, clear and successful picture on principles of registering stylistic and grammatical characteristics of Russian words. During the entire course of the history of human civilization, lexicography as a theoretical and practical science of developing and producing dictionaries is one of the oldest areas of mans humanitarian venture[7].

«Первый лингвистический Институт в системе Академии наук, получивший сперва название Института яфетидологическях изысканий, был организован акад. Н.Я. Марром в 1921 г. В 1931 г. он был переименован в Институт Языка и мышления. После смерти акад. Марра руководителем Института почти 20 лет был акад. И. И. Мещанинов, ориентировавший лингвистические исследования на разнообразие и теоретически актуальную тематику. Работа Института постепенно расширялась, охватывая все большее число лингвистических специальностей. Институт усиливал работу по подготовке научных кадров, в том числе для национальных республик»[8].

–Агниа Васильевна Десницкая[9] (19121992).

GAD Page30

The milestones of the Russian academic lexicography are as follows:

Тhe Dictionary of the Russian Academy, volumes IVI, St. Petersburg, 17891794; Словарь Академии Российской. Т. 16. СПб., 17891794.

Exegesis. Тhe Dictionary of the Russian Academy was compiled by 47 out of 60 members of the Academy, edited by Catherine Dashkova (17431810), Peter Inokhodtsev (17421806), Ivan Lepekhin (17401802), Ivan Boltin (17351792), Denis Fonvizin (17451792), Gavrila Derzhavin (17431816), Jacob Knyazhnin (17421791), Ippolit Bogdanovich (17431803) et al. It was prepared in 10 years and 9 months, containing 43,257 words, volumes IVI, St. Petersburg, 17891794.

     This dictionary has presently found its modern reflection in the Dictionary of the Russian Language of the XVIII Century, compiled on historical principles: Словарь русского языка XVIII века / АН СССР. Институт русского языка/Институт лингвистических исследований РАН; Гл. ред.: Ю.С. Сорокин. Л.–СПб.: Наука. Ленинградское/Санкт–Петербургское отделение, 19842011. Вып. 119 (A–Плангерд); СПб.: Наука. (Издание продолжается). Основатели «Словаря русского языка XVIII века» Л.Л. Кутина и Ю.С. Сорокин. The online version can be located at: <>.

     Тhe Dictionary of the Russian Academy, second edition , the Dictionary of the Russian Academy in Alphabetical Order, volumes IVI, St. Petersburg, 18061822Словарь Академии Российской, по азбучному порядку расположенный. Т. 16. СПб., 18061822. The online version can be located at: <>.

Exegesis. The Dictionary of the Russian Academy, Second Edition, contains 51,288 words, volumes IVI, St. Petersburg, 18061822.

     Тhe Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian Language or the Dictionary of 1847, volumes I–IV, St. Petersburg, 1847; Словарь церковнославянского и русского языка, составлен 2-м отделением Императорской Академии Наук. Т. 14. СПб., 1847. Словарь церковнославянского и русского языка, составлен 2-м отделением Императорской Академии Наук. Т. 14. СПб., 18671868.

Exegesis. The third Academic dictionary. It was complied and edited by Alexander Vostokov (17811864) et al., at the the Second Branch of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, containing 114,749 words in four volumes, published in St. Petersburg in 1847, followed by its second edition between the years of 18671868. The Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian Language, prepared and republished unchanged by Alexander Gerd, Irina Lutovinova and Аleksey Shchekin, St. Petersburg State University Press, St. Petersburg, 2001.

     Тhe Dictionary of Practical Regional Great Russian Language, volumes I-II, St. Petersburg, 1852 and its Supplement, St. Petersburg, 1858;

Exegesis. The Dictionary of Practical Regional Great Russian Language and its Supplement (Опыт областного великорусского словаря. — СПб., 1852.), prepared and republished unchanged by Alexander Gerd, Sergei Miznikov and Sergei Volkov, St. Petersburg State University Press, St. Petersburg, 2001; Опыт областного великорусского языка, Complied by Alexander Vostokov in two volumes, St. Petersburg, 1852, followed by its Supplement, St. Petersburg, 1858.

Тhe Dictionary of the Russian Language under the editorship of Jacob Grot et al., St. Petersburg, 1891; Словарь русского языка, составлен 2-м отделением императорской Академии наук. Том 1 (АД). СПб., 1891—1895/ Под редакцией Я.К. Грота. (Незавершенный академический словарь).

■ Izmail Sreznevsky, Materials for the Dictionary of Old Russian Language [based] on Ancient Manuscripts, St. Petersburg, 1893; Срезневский И.И. Материалы для словаря древнерусского языка. Т. 13. СПб., 18901912.

This dictionary  has found its modern reflection in the Dictionary of the Russian Language of the XIXVII Centuries [compiled on historical principles]: Словарь русского языка XIXVII вв. / АН СССР. Институт русского языка./ИРЯ РАН им. В.В. Виноградова; Гл. ред.: Ф.П. Филин/ В.Б. Крысько. М.: Наука. Азбуковник 19752011. Вып. 129 (A–Тольмиже); М.: Наука. (Издание продолжается).

Exegesis. Materials of the Old Russian Language for the Dictionary on Written Monuments published in four volumes in St. Petersburg between the years of 18931912 by Izmail Sreznevsky (1812-1880), a towering figure in the field of XIX century Slavistics.

Тhe Dictionary of Contemporary Russian Literary Language or the GAD1, volumes IXVII, Moscow & Leningrad, 1948/19501965; Словарь современного русского литературного языка (БАС или БАС1). Т. IXVII. М.; Л., 1948/19501965.

Тhe Dictionary of the Russian Language or the PAD1, PAD2 (2-е изд. М., 19811984.), PAD3 (3-е изд. М., 19851988.) and PAD4 [Petite Academic Dictionary], volumes IIV, 19571961 (second enlarged and supplemented edition, 19811984; third edition with corrections, 19851988 and forth stereotypical edition, 1999), Moscow & St. Petersburg; Словарь русского языка. Т. 14. М., 19571961.

Тhe Dictionary of Synonyms of the Russian Language, Volumes I-II, Moscow & Leningrad, 19701972; second stereotypical print by the Institute for Linguistic Studies, Moscow & St. Petersburg, 2003;

Тhe Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language or the GAD3, volumes 1–[30], Moscow & St. Petersburg, 2004 (publication continues, volumes 119 are published as of 2012). Большой академический словарь русского языка/ Институт лингвистических исследований; Гл. ред.: Кирилл Сергеевич Горбачевич (тт. 1–10)/Александр Сергеевич Герд (тт. 13–…). – СПб.: Наука. 2004–2012. – Томы 1–19 (A–Пресс); СПб: Наука. (Издание продолжается).


«Although, a dictionary is like the entire Universe set in alphabetical order! If one would like to reason well, a dictionary is the book of books. It incorporates all the other books within itself. One just needs to extract them from it…[10].

Anatole France (18441924).


Reviewing and examining a multi-volume dictionary is not a simple task, especially when the work is almost more than half way through its production, not mentioning previously published two separate editions, the GAD1 (19481965) and the GAD2 (1991–1994). It may take years to write a reasonable review on such a publication like the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language.

The Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language is a strictly normative dictionary of an active type extensively colouring contemporary Russian literary language from late XVIII-XXI centuries: “from Pushkin to the present day”, from 1799 to the present. Some exceptions can indicate earlier periods of Nikolay Karamzin (1766–1826).

More than two centuries ago, it took seven years (1794–1801) for Professor A.L. Schlözer from Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen to finish his “review on Словарь Академии Российской”[11] (тт. IVI, Санкт-Петербург, 17891794) which was sent to him by Catherine Dashkova in 1794. Ironically, Professor Schlözer wanted to do the same, to write a brief history on the Russian Academy and the Dictionary of the Russian Academy. However, that wish was never fulfilled until now, this moment of the year 2012.

The sheer volume of the Great Academic Dictionary and its vivid history simply make it impossible to demonstrate and uncover the relatively complete picture of the normative values of contemporary Russian literary language[12] of the late XVIII to early XXI centuries, and some essential aspects of it, fairly related to the argument or the subject matter of this monograph by maintaining it not only within a compact historical framework but also in an academically descriptive and proscriptive parallel shadows of  its contemporaneity and normativity.

Keeping this difficult task in mind, the enormous amount of data accumulated on St. Petersburg (Leningrad) academic lexicography had grown so large that the idea of writing about Russian academic lexicography, especially about the the Great Academic Dictionary had become daunting.

Since the subject matter is entirely related to the Great Academic Dictionary and even named as such, the main emphasis is focused on other matters that were always in question by non-Russians and Russians likewise. Therefore, the system called From the ABC to the Dictionary or От Азбуки до Словаря[13] is a carefully mastered formula to be employed, in this particular case, to elucidate the entire picture by presenting the subject matter from the Russian alphabet to the Dictionary. In order for the reader to assimilate this approach and not to surge from source to source, in order for him to comprehend the subject matter, everything that is discussed will be found in a single source, right here!

From the ABC to the Dictionary  is a “system of rationally organized and wellthought out naturally developed series of historic events that display a transparent notion of essence of the evolutionary progress of this particular pragmatic methodology in scholastic linguistic discipline of λόγος, λέξις, γλώσσα, γλωσσολογία και λεξικό:


lingua simplex

verbal communication before the origin of the writing system;

■ Φωνητική: phonetics or speech sounds;

■ Αλφάβητο: the origin of the alphabet;

■ Φωνολογία: phonology phonemes;

■ Μορφολογία: morphology, resulting in word creation or promoting lexical developments;

■ Γραμματική: grammar as a direct result of alphabetic existence;

■ Σύνταξη: syntax: the formation of phrases and sentences;

     ■ recording and documentation of speech matter;

     ■ Λογοτεχνία: literature as a direct result of the process of documentation;

     ■ Φιλολογία: philological developments;

■ Σημασιολογία: semantics, resulting in literal meaning of phrases and sentences;

     ■ variations of the written signification;

     ■ expansion of literary materials;

■ Πραγματικός: pragmatics, resulting in meaning in context of discourse;

Aνάλυσις: lexical analysis;

■ Συνταγματικός και Παραδειγματικός: documenting syntagmatic and paradigmatic shifts;

■ Λογοφιλία: philosophy of words, phrases and sentences;

■ Κυβερνητικός: cybernetics of lexical science; and

■ Λεξικό και Λεξικογραφία: dictionary as a momentarily taken lexicographical picture of the language[14].


     This system in its simplified version is the essence of this monograph:


alphabet and its further development;

time and changes;

literature through historic events;

current or contemporary literary language;

various factors affecting further modification;

lexical signification and novelties;

scientific lexicography;

dictionary as a momentarily taken lexicographical picture of the language.


For many of us using a dictionary is just a brief visit to this reference book looking for words from explicit or implicit, descriptive or prescriptive angle of interest. It is not always possible to find the majority of lexical characteristics of a word in a single source unless the topic is analyzed through a mindset of an active approach to the subject. The Great Academic Dictionary is prepared on principles of an active type dictionary.

From the first sight the reader of the Great Academic Dictionary definitely can notice the Cyrillic alphabet. Hence, it all starts from there… The alphabet is utilized for word formation. Orthographic norms are employed to unify a clear set of grammatical rules and values when writing. Everything written is considered as a document. The documented historic events here are related to the time period when Academic Lexicography was founded and to the people who made it happen. Every documented written material, including this Monograph itself represents this or that literary style. So to speak, the language is stylistically prepared for written or verbal purposes.

The Russian language  used in the Great Academic Dictionary is nothing but a well systemic version, called 1) Russian Literary Language or 2) Contemporary Russian Literary Language (or current Russian). Contemporary Russian Literary Language has its own history and chronological borders. Alexander Pushkin (17991837) is considered to be the founder of literary Russian. Therefore, the chronology of this particular epoch definitely coincides with the date of birth of Alexander Pushkin, the year of 1799. This very factor indicates strictly defined chronological borders for the Great Great Academic Dictionary. Since the dictionary is dealing with literary language, then some major and decisive questions regarding Russian literary language from Pushkin to the present day and contemporary literary language norms will be one of the central issues for discussion.

The Great Academic Dictionary is the dictionary of the state language of the Russian Federation. The Great Academic Dictionary is a scientific edition and its strict normativity on philological principles are the raison d’être of “this unparalleled monumental lexicographical opus, unmatched in the world[15]. The Great Academic Dictionary is a normative dictionary of several combined norms under one title: orthographic, orthoepic, grammatical, syntactic, semantic, lexical combinations, idiomatic, phraseological, lexicographic origins, etymologic, stylistic, illustrative, functional etc. The dictionary also indicates antonyms, cross-referential information within lexical units and historical elements, phenomena and orthographic or orthoepic metamorphosis within the referential/etymological zone.

Exegesis. Each paragraph in the Prolegomenon denotes by additional essays and materials related to the subject matter, refer to Terminal Objectives which gives a generous amount of expanded materials and essays directly and relevantly connected to the particular topic of a certain paragraph within the Prolegomenon. Therefore, the Prolegomenon can be considered as a sеpаrate and independent brief version of the History of the Great Academic Dictionary.

The reader has a clear choice of reading a rather massive Prolegomenon alone and ignoring  Terminal Objectives of the History of the Great Academic Dictionary; or he can skip the Prolegomenon and read the main chapters in Terminal Objectives on the history of the Great Academic Dictionary. However, a curious reader will find both parts of this monograph irresistibly inseparable and indispensable. Therefore, they shall be constituted separately as the Petit Introduction and Grand Introduction as A Companion Volume to the entire set of the Great Academic Dictionary, a missing volume and a link that has not been addressed by authors and editors alike starting from its initial edition of 1948 to its present edition, the GAD3.

■ БАС3: «ПАРАГРАФ, а, м. Часть текста внутри главы, раздела и т. п. книги, статьи, имеющая самостоятельное значение (выделяемая обычно специальным знаком § и порядковым номером). Статья делится на три параграфа. ▭ [Фауст:] Слова: «единство» и «предмет»., обыкновенно встречаются в первых параграфах всякой философской книги. В. Одоев. Русск. ночи. В одном из параграфов устава было сказано: «Директор назначает роли, и все актеры должны беспрекословно повиноваться его назначению». С. Акс. Воспоминания. Я ему рассказал, какие, по моему мнению, главы и параграфы нуждаются в особенно серьезной доработке, каким проблемам важно уделить особое внимание. Г. Арбатов, Человек Системы. // Сам этот знак (§). Параграфы набирать курсивом. II Разг. Отдельное правило, указание, положение какого-л. документа, устава, программы и т. п. Говорили, что он все законы знает наизусть, и я этому верил, потому что сам слыхал, как он, бывало, начнет приводить указы, ..пункты, параграфы, ..как будто разогнутая книга лежала перед его не слепыми, а зрячими глазами. С. Акс. Детск. годы Багр.-внука. — Нащекина умная, добрая и достойная особа. Не виновата же она в том, что ей приходится строго исполнять все параграфы нашего институтского полу монастырского устава. Купр. Юнкера.

— Вейсманн, 1731, с. 239: параграф; Нордстет, 1782: параграф; Слов. Акад. 1793: параграф; Гейм, 1801: параграф; Слов. Акад. 1822: параграф. — От греч. παράγραφος.»[16].

Russian academic lexicography came into existence along with the Russian Academy[17] & [18] which was established in St. Petersburg in 1783. It has been developed during the span of the past 230 years. From 1783 to the present day many social, economic and political changes have taken place in Russia which have left their definite impression on Russian academic lexicography, the main subject of this monograph where every major relevant event regarding St. Petersburg (Leningrad) academic lexicography is possibly registered here on chronological principles.

During this time period the Russian Academy has published several well established and successful normative and historical dictionaries of the Russian language which have maintained their international status and functionality to this present day.

A standard was strived to be maintained throughout the entire Monograph by utilizing the following lexicographical masterpieces:

■ GAD3, The Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language или Большой академический словарь русского языка (hereafter the GAD или БАС);

     ■ GAD2, The Dictionary of Contemporary Russian Literary Language или двадцатитомный Словарь современного русского литературного языка (hereafter the GAD2 или БАС2);

     ■ GAD1, The Dictionary of Contemporary Russian Literary Language или семнадцатитомный Словарь современного русского литературного языка (hereafter the GAD1 или БАС1);

     ■ PAD3, The Petite Academic Dictionary или Академический четырехтомный Словарь русского языка (hereafter the PAD3 или МАС3, Малый академический словарь);

     Словарь синонимов русского языка в 2-х томах; и

     ■ СРЯ18, Тhe legendary Dictionary of the XVIII Century Russian или Словарь русского языка XVIII века (hereafter СРЯ18);

     ■ Extracts, mainly quotations used in the above mentioned dictionaries, or quoting the entire lexical entries anywhere in this Monograph mostly relevant or rarely irrelevant to the subject matter is predetermined to show the usefulness of the GAD3, GAD2, GAD1, the PAD3 and the СРЯ18, in this respect. Mostly the Dictionnaire de la langue française by Émile Littré, commonly called simply the Littré, was used as a comparison base to the GAD3 throughout the entire text of this Monograph.

     Formulating this Monograph chronologically by От Азбуки до Словаря[19] is not a new idea.   This method would definitely  make the subject matter more explicit  and facile for comprehension; impressive and memorable by the way the entire material is gathered and presented. От Азбуки до Словаря is a unique chronological method, scrupulously developed all about either the fate of our words used in speech and in literature on a daily basis, or of words of a forever forgotten fate.

A collective effort was employed to prepare, write, edit and make this monograph ready. The Editorial Collegium of TDK have spent almost 14 editorial years to put this very unusual Monograph in shape. The names of colleagues are as follows:

Anthony Bashford, Esq.;

Odette Caravella, Ph.D.;

Jack L. Cross, Ph.D. (1921-2011);

Stanislav Golovan, M.D., Ph.D.;

■ Глаина Кругляшова, Ph.D.;

Antonina Lyubov, Ph.D. (1928-2011);

Mark J. Moody, Ph.D. (1951-2011);

Lynda Mugglestone, Ph.D.;

Sofia Pahlevanian, Ph.D.;

Joseph Rosenthal, M.D., Ph.D. (1923-2012);

Mercedes de las Salas, Ph.D.

Some complete or partial selections of critical essays and treatises of a national and historical significance, written by famous academic scholars and lexicographers, have been generously included within the anatomy  of the Petit Introduction, the Prolegomenon or the Grand Introduction, the Terminal Objectives to the History of the Great Academic Dictionary. By utilizing mainly Russian and English simultaneously, it can serve as a comparative example of a Russian essay vs. English essay for purely didactic purposes, intended for the school of fluency as a manual for students at Romano-Germanic Departments of Philological Faculties at various institutes or universities.

Every paragraph (§) or chapter within the Prolegomenon discusses briefly  in the the Petit Introduction, the Preface or extensively in the Grand Introduction or the Terminal Objectives  the state of Russian academic lexicography or closely related events of the late XVIII, XIX, mainly XX and XXI centuries respectively. It covers the periods from the origin of Jacob Grot’s Dictionary of the Russian language through the Great Academic Dictionary of the XXI century, showing every possible link connecting “the Alphabet to the words and their journey to be documented in the dictionary.[20]

Forever immortal and beloved Professor Cyrill Gorbachevich’s essays found their firm places in the essential body of this Monograph. Fragments[21] of Professor Alexander Heard’s essay On the Russian Studies of Petersburg (Leningrad) Lexicography is used here with his kind permission.

Several major lexicographical works of international significance have been lovingly analyzed and studied thoroughly for a lifetime before making comparison values to the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language. All the sources were always kept discretionally present at my fingertips, next to the manuscript, serving as the vital and supportive elements to the subject matter of this Monograph.

     The GAD is contiguously compared  to alternatively excellent lexicographical projects and superbly complied foreign dictionaries  for comparative purposes. The authenticity of any dictionary’s rightfully quintessence as a supremely devised facade is aggregated and represented in its preface. The essential purpose of the objective goal to illustrate the text by providing prefaces of world renowned dictionaries had shaped a definite frame of a chapter within the Prolegomenon, proudly named as CLARUS PREFATORIUM LEXICA.

No dictionary is ever made without having its frame based on its card index system. What is a card index, and where is it located? Similar questions are subliminally answered somewhere in this Monograph.

The Portrait Galleria of this Monograph is pasted throughout the text to show those who were and are involved in the integral processes of the Russian Academy and lexicographical projects.  The Portrait Galleria is the other identity of the Monograph, yet to be explored! The original textual plan was starting from the XVIII century. However, that portion is reserved for our upcoming project, the History of the Dictionary of XVIII Century Russian Language.

To make the dull material and the subject matter seem a little brighter, the text is exposed to strictly chronological Portrait Galleria[22] which is directly related to almost all who were or are related to either the Russian Academy[23], Russian literature or academic lexicography. The Portrait galleria is arranged on historical principles to support the subject matter indirectly by adding a little colour to show some vitality in the process of the making of this Monograph.

■ БАС3: «ГАЛЕРЕЯ, и, ж. 1. Длинный и узкий крытый коридор или балкон вдоль стены здания. [Илюше] страсть хочется взбежать на огибавшую весь дом висячую галерею, чтоб посмотреть оттуда на речку; но галерея ветха, чутьчуть держится. Гонч. Обломов. Передо мной, опираясь на перила галереи, обходившей дом, стояла девушка. Тихон. Кавалькада. ▭ Устар. Галлерея. Я отсюда вижу низенький домик с галлереею из маленьких почернелых деревянных столбиков, идущею вокруг всего дома, чтобы можно было., затворить ставни окон, не замочась дождем. Гог. Старосв. помещ. // Крытый переход, соединяющий отдельные здания. По дороге к комнате сестры, в галерее, соединявшей один дом с другим, князь Андрей встретил., m-lle Bourienne. Л. Толст. Война и мир. [Шереметев] носился с мыслью о постройке двух флигелей, соединенных переходными галереями с главным домом. Грабарь, В поисках неизвестн. построек В. И. Баженова. // Длинный проход, коридор, соединяющий помещения внутри здания; длинная комната, узкий зал со сплошным рядом больших окон в одной из продольных стен.

За большой гостиной следовала «галерея» длинная комната, проходная в бильярдную и в читальню, имевшая также выход в сад. Гиляр. Москва и москвичи. Я продолжал путь через так называемую большую галерею.. Во всю длину этого широкого коридора висели громадные портреты. Игнат. 50 лет в строю. // Длинное строение с застекленными стенами или открытое с боков, служащее для прогулок, отдыха на воздухе и т. п. Вот и колодезь.. На площадке близ него построен домик, ..а подальше галерея, где гуляют во время дождя. Лерм. Кн. Мери. // Устар. Крытая прогулочная палуба вдоль бортов судна. Наша пароходная публика., небольшими группами сидела и гуляла по верхней галерее. Гл. Усп. Из пут. заметок. [Фома] стоял на галерее парохода, отходившего от пристани. М. Горький, Фома Гордеев.

  1. Устар. Верхний ярус в театре, цирке и т.   п.;   галерка (в   1   знач.). Каждый день., ходил я в театр, в галерею 4-го яруса. Пушк. Ист. с. Горюхина. Еще задолго до занавеса театр уже был полон: партер, ложи и галерея были усыпаны публикой. Мам.-Сиб. Бурн. поток. // Балкон в верхней части большого зала; хоры. В восточном конце залы галерея для музыкантов, а в западном трон королевский. Греч, Путев, письма.. Верхняя галерея, широкая и светлая, совершенно напоминает вам такую же галерею, или хоры, в храме Спасителя. Гл. Усп. Оч. перех. времени.
  2. Подземный ход, служащий для производственных, военных и т. п. целей. Водосборные галереи. Шахты надобно углублять, галереи вести все дальше. Черныш. «Основ, полит, экономии» Милля. Генуэзцы и венецианцы., несколько десятилетий долбили там [на острове Корфу] скалы, проводя в них подземные галереи. Серг.-Ценск. Флот и крепость.
  3. Специальное помещение, в котором размещены для обозрения произведения искусства; художественный музей. [Третьяков] обычно посещал мастерские художников и еще до выставок приобретал для галереи самые выдающиеся картины. Телеш. Зап. писателя. ◊ Картинная галерея. Картинные галереи Лувра были залиты сплошною и очень пестрою толпою. Леек. Обойденные. Я был у одного банкира, в картинной галерее которого находятся., несколько произведений Фортуни. Поленов, Письма. 1875 г. ◊ В составных названиях художественных музеев. Национальная галерея. Третьяковская галерея. // Собрание, коллекция произведений искусства. Потом они занялись рассмотрением галереи картин, купленных князем. Пушк. Дубровский. Посреди главного зала в этом отделе музея собрана галерея портретов самых знаменитых энтомологов, включая Линнея. Шулейкин, Дни прожитые.
  4. Перен. Последовательный ряд, вереница образов, типов и т. п. ◊ Галерея чего-л. Комедия «Горе от ума» есть и картина нравов, и галерея живых типов. Гонч. Мильон терзаний. Чехов создал громадную галерею типов и характеров всех классов современного ему общества. В. Катаев, Чехов.

— С иным (устар.) напис: галлерея (прим. см. выше). — Вейсманн, 1731, с. 557: галерия; Леке. 1762: галлерея, галерея; Нордстет, 1780: галерея; Слов. Акад. 1790: галлерея; Слов. Акад. 1847: галерея; Даль: галерея и галлерея; Слов. Акад. 1892: галлерея; Даль (3 изд.): галерея, галлерея; Слов, иностр. ел. 1937: галлерея; Ожегов, 1949: галерея. — Итал. galleria, франц. galerie, нем. Galerie.»[24].

■ БАС1: «Галерея, и, ж. 1. Длинный крытый, иногда застекленный проход, переход; проход под навесом вдоль стены дома. По дороге к комнате сестры, в галлерее, соединявшей один дом с другим, князь Андрей встретил мило улыбавшуюся m-lle Воипеппе. Л. Толст, Война и мир, т. I, ч. I, гл. 28. Я отсюда вижу низенький домик с галереею из маленьких почернелых деревянных столбиков, идущею вокруг всего дома, чтобы можно было во время грома и града затворить ставни окон, не замочасъ дождем. Гог. Старосв. помещ, • Длинное, узкое, открытое с боков или застекленное строение отдельно от жилья, предназначенное для прогулок, отдыха и т. п. Наконец вот и колодезьНа площадке близ него построен домик.., а подальше галерея, где гуляют во время дождя. Лерм. Кн . Мера. …

— С иным написанием: галлерея (примеры см. выше). — Вейсманнов Леке. 1731, с. 557: галерия; Нордстет, Слов. 1780: галерея, галереиный; Слов. Акад. 1790: галлерея; Слов. Акад. 1847: галерея; Даль, Слов.: галерея и галлерея; Слов. Акад. 1892: галлерея; Ушак. Толк. слов. 1934: галерея и галлерея, галёрка; Слов, иностр. слов 1949: галерея и галлерея; Ожегов, Слов. 1949 и 1952: галерея. — Итал. galleria, в X в. в Риме обозначало паперть в церкви. ».[25]

■ СРЯ18: «⊲ ГАЛЕРЕ́Я 1709 (-лле- 1699, <► -лля-1698, <► -ала- 1706, <► -лла- 1732, <► -ля-1734, <► го- 1708, <► ге- 1730, <► -ия 1705, <► -иа 1724) и нейтр.Прост. ГАЛДАРЕЯ 1703 (-де- 1775), и, ж.род. мн. -ей и -ев. 1. Ит. galleria (galla-), фр. galerie, нем. Gallerie, гол. galery (galde-), пол. galerya Форт. Проход, подземный ход, подкоп. Здѣлать галареи для бережения от поткопоф. ПБП IV 211. Уже спускаютца в ров и готовятца проити галерии [или покрытые дороги]. О воин. Цез. 283. Под земляными валами добрые галле́рии и своды построены .. были. Побежд. кр. 32.

  1. Ит. galleria, фр. galerie, через гол. galery, galdery. Мор. Балкон вокруг кормы; бортовой коридор на судне. С адмиральскаго корабля рѣзныя галдареи сшибло. МРФ I 72. Нижние галдареи здѣланы; а рѣзьбы нѣт и трети. ПБП II 569. И в галериях, то есть в переходах перед каморами может <провиантмейстер> тот хлѣб положить. УВМ 225.
  2. Ит. gallaria, фр. galerie, непоср. и через пол. galerya, нем. Gallerie, гол. galery, galdery. Архит. Длинный переход, соединяющий помещения или отдельные здания; длинный балкон вдоль стены. Изволил король ходить, сквозь галерию старого Лувра, смотрить свою Типографию. Вед. II 307. Построена весьма изрядная ратуша или биржа, при которой есть галлерея для купцов. Сев. Ам. 144. Столбы сии превеликую красоту дѣлают, составляя в три ряда галлереи во всю длину онаго здания. Дшк. Англ. пут. 117. || Ярус в театре. Она сѣла сперва в галлереѣ; но Актеры просили ее .. сойти в одну из первых лож. МЖ IV 25. Большие Театры строились в три этажа или в три галлереи. Корифей II 71. || Отдельное легкое продолговатое строение (в саду, парке). Кушали в галдареѣ что в рощецѣ на берегу рѣки против лугу. Псм Дев. 1243. Да липин же не обсѣченныя вершины, чѣм огибают бесѣдки и покрытыя галареи, 1000 дерев <купить>. МГО I 78.
  3. Ит. galleria, непоср. и через пол. galerya, нем. Gallerie. Здание, помещение для хранения картин, редкостей; собрание картин. Галерия или собрание вещей. АК I 118. В Ливорнѣ у гран-дука галерия, в которой разныя вещи от пиктуры и от скульптуры древней. Зап. Неп. 48. Поѣхали было смотрѣть в Луксембургском дворцѣ галлерею славнаго Рубенса. Пут. Хмн.
  4. ◊ Картинная г. Пошел я в славную картинную галлерею, которая почитается одною из первых в Европѣ. Крм. ПРП I 271.

Галерейка (-лле-), и, ж. На построенной там галерейкѣ, с кавалерами забавляться в карты. ЖКФ 1766 77. Украшать их <площадки в саду> .. бесѣдками, нишами, галлерейками. СЖ II 77.

Галерейный, ая, ое. От галерейных дверей. ЖКФ 1756 130.

— Удар. галле́рия (см. цит.). Норм. САР1 галлере́я. Лекс. ЛВН галериа.»[26].

A unique and atypical method of bibliography and footnotes are established, implicit or explicit, in the text. This is mainly due to senselessly different rules used in British English, American English and Russian. It was decided to summarize all the differences and make an occasional approach to this ever-confused area.

The traditional system of word order used in a classical formulation of footnotes and bibliography is not utilized in this monograph. Instead, a philosophically sound and different system of the Five Ws (also known as the Five Ws (and one H), or the Six Ws and more than one full stops (.) are used in a concept of journalistic or jurisprudential style, research and legal investigations that are regarded as basics in information-gathering protocols and documenting events chronologically. It is a formula for achieving a relatively complete story on the subject discussed or examined historically and chronologically. The maxim of the Five W’s (and one H) is that for a report to be considered complete, it must answer a checklist of six questions, each of which comprises [possibly] of an interrogative word; generally developing from general to specific order. This method of writing benefits the reader who will not be annoyed by flipping the book back and forth in order to find the footnotes and Примечания.

Meanwhile, the text will be available both in printed and electronic versions, published conventionally (on paper) and electronically. (currently under construction) is intended for russophiles by giving the reader the chance of utilizing interactive tasks regarding the Great Academic Dictionary, i.e. creating forums on the subject etc.

Since the argument of this Monograph is all about the Great Academic Dictionary and its history, special attention is paid to the GAD1, Словарь современного русского литературного языка and its second edition, the GAD2 which brings us to the GAD3 or the new edition of the Great Academic Dictionary itself, and the people who were and are still involved in the making of it.

Furthermore, this Monograph will mainly emphasize on strictly logically developed chronological events which took place from the late XVIII century onwards, keeping the Russian academic lexicography in its spotlight of who, what, where, when and why: What or who is it about? What happened? Where did it take place? When did it take place? Why did it happen? How did it happen?

If logic or rationality is applied to the formula of “from ABC to the Dictionary, than the theoretical and practical characteristics of the GAD will be wisely elucidated: the objectives why and how it was compiled, where does it originate from, and who have been the compilers and editors? This is the main purpose and the sole reason, standing firmly behind this Monograph: От Азбуки до Словаря which is the vicious circle that revolves around the axis of the empirical essentials of the alphabet, the core framework of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language, and the notion of its various disciplinary elements, filed and lined between the Alphabet and the Dictionary – namely just the philological and lexicographical evolution alone, driven by the modification on the chronological history of the GAD, rather then on the ideological philology through history [27].



[1]Анна Ахматова, Мужество (23 февраля 1942, Ташкент), Рукопись, Стихотворения, Париж, 1947. С. 36 // Личная Библиотека Мадама Эжени Боуберона.

[2] Alexander Heard**, Essays from the History of Science, Larins Lexicographical School of St. Petersburg University, page 4, St. Petersburg, 2007.

** Some sources indicate a different spelling of his name as a result of direct transliteration from the Russian language: Alexander Gerd (

[3] Lyudmila Kruglikova, The Archive of Letters and Correspondence for J. Rosenthal & M. Karamian, File БАС 173-01/EM, page 73, April 15, 2011, Acapulco, Mexico & Savannah, USA.

[4] Hereafter referred to as the RAS.

[5] Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary // Languages: Harmony of Languages, volume IV, page 290, First and Second English Editions, Covent Garden, London, 1824.

[6] Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of English Language, volume I, page 7, London, 1755.

[7] Alexander Heard, Essays from the History of Science, Larins Lexicographical School of St. Petersburg University, page 3, St. Petersburg, 2007.

[8] 50 лет академического лингвистического института, В ноябре 1971 г. А.В. Десницкая прочитала доклад «Лингвистические институты Ленинграда в истории советского языкознания» на конференции «50 лет академического лингвистического института в Ленинграде«.

[9] А. В. Десницкая – советский филолог, организатор науки, педагог; специалист по общему, сравнительно-историческому и германскому языкознанию, истории языкознания и албановедению, по проблемам балканского языкового союза, истории и теории отдельных групп индоевропейских языков, албанской литературе и фольклору. Основатель советской школы албановедения. Доктор филологических наук (1946), профессор. Директор ЛО Института языкознания АН СССР (1963-1976). Член-корр. АН СССР по Отделению языка и литературы (1964). Под руководством таких специалистов, как Л. В. Щерба, А. П. Баранников, Л. П. Якубинский и др. она изучала классические языки (древнегреческий и латинский), санскрит, славянские, иранские, кельтские и хеттский языки, позднее самостоятельно овладела албанским языком.

[10] Anatole France (1844-1924), Lexicon, from P. Galpin’s Private Library, Manhattan, New York 1954.

[11] Göttingenische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen, Bd. 2, S. 1463 — 1472, Göttingen, 1801.

[12] Contemporary Russian literary language is also understood as standard or current Russian.

[13] From the ABS to the Dictionary (От Азбуки до Словаря) is a future project embracing the events from 1710 to the present day.

[14] Karamian M., Anglolysis, Preface, pp. xxxix-xxxi, Acapulco & Savannah, 2006.

[15] Karamian M., Anglolysis, Chapter 12, P. 1032. Exhibit D. Acapulco & Savannah, 2006.

[16] Большой академический словарь русского языка. Т. 15, с. 364. Институт лингвистических исследований, РАН. Наука: Санкт-Перербург, 2011.

[17] Not to be confused with the Petrine Petersburg Academy of Sciences, established in 1724 which was renamed the Российская академия наук (1917—1925). From 1925 onwards the Soviet government recognized the Russian Academy of Sciences as the «highest all-Union scientific institution» and renamed it the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1925-1991). After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, by decree of the President of Russia on December 2, 1991, the institute once again became the Russian Academy of Sciences, inheriting all the facilities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the territory of Russia.

[18] A separate highest institution, called the Russian Academy (Академия Российская), was established in 1783 to operate on the study of the Russian language. Presided over by Princess Catherine Dashkova (who at the same time was the Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences, i.e., the country’s «main» academy), the Russian Academy was engaged in compiling the six-volume Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (1789–1794). Later the Russian Academy was merged into the Petersburg Academy of Sciences and in 1841, re-organized as the Second Branch of the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences or Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

[19] Cf. Karamian M., Anglolysis, Acapulco & Savannah, 2006.

[20] Karamian М., An Essay from Anglolysis©, From ABC to the Dictionary, pages 37-380; Anales del Instituto de Literaturas Clásicas, La Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico D.F., Eldonejo La Portal Electronica, Acapulco & Savannah, 2006.

[21] See the full length text of the essay On the Russian Studies of Petersburg (Leningrad) Lexicography by Professor Alexander Heard in Abstract XIII.

[22] Credits to Portrait Galleria could be found at 1) Пушкинский дом <>, 2) Третьяковская галерея and 3) Эрмитаж portals.

[23] См. Е. В. Кочнева, Портретная галерея Российской Академии в собрании Литературного Музея ИРЛИ РАН (по материалам выставки «Слава Академии Российской», посвященной 225-летию учреждения Российской академии) //Российская Академия (1783–1841): язык и литература в России на рубеже XVIII–XIX веков, СПб, 2009. С. 183-205.

[24] Большой академический словарь русского языка. Т. 4, с. 29-30. Институт лингвистических исследований, РАН. Наука: Санкт-Перербург, 2006.

[25] Словарь современного русского литературного языка, том III, столб. 22-23, Москва & Ленинград, 1954.

[26] Словарь русского языка XVIII в., Вып. 5. (Выпить — Грызть). — Л.: Наука. Ленингр. отд-ние, 1989. — 256 с.

[27] This particular subject is thoroughly covered by Peter A. Druzhinin, Ph.D. in his latest monumental toil, “Ideology and Philology” (volumes 1-2, text in Russian. Publication ISBN: 978-5-86793-982-3 (v. 1) , 978-5-86793-983-0 (v. 2). <>, <>.



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