Новый Большой академический словарь


IBASThe new edition of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (GAD) is a completely new normative dictionary of an active type, written on new principles in comparison to the Dictionary of Contemporary Russian Literary Language in 17 volumes. It is built on the excellence of the lexicographical traditions, scholarship and analysis of the evidence set down by the Russian Academy over a century ago, beginning with Academician Jacob Grot’s Dictionary of the Russian Language.

The GAD is a new departure. The GAD is a dictionary of current Russian. It is based on currently available material and the correct thinking about language and cognition. It is an inventory of the words and meanings from Alexander Pushkin to the present-day Russian, both those in actual use and found in the literature of the past and present.

The compilers have gone to the heart of the traditional practices of the dictionary making art and have reappraised the normative principles on which Russian lexicography is based upon. In particular, the focus has been on a different approach to an understanding of  ‘meaning’ and how this relates to the structure, organization and selection of material for the dictionary.

Linguists, cognitive scientists, and others have been developing new techniques for analyzing meaning and usage. Therefore, the GAD has taken full advantage of these developments. Foremost, amongst them is an emphasis on identifying what is ‘central and typical’, as distinct from the time-honoured search for ‘necessary conditions’ of meaning (i. e. a statement of the conditions that would enable someone to pick out all and only cases of the term being defined). Past attempts to cover the meaning of all possible uses of a word have tended to lead to a blurred, unfocused result, in which the core of the meaning is obscured by many minor uses. In the GAD, meanings are linked to the central norms of usage as observed in the language. The result is fewer meanings, with sharper, crisper definitions.

The style of definition adopted for the GAD aims in part to account for the dynamism, imaginativeness, and the flexibility of ordinary usage. The GAD records and explains all normal meanings and uses of all well-attested words, but also illustrates ambiguous, figurative, and derivative meanings, in so far as these are conventional within the language.

At the heart of the GAD lies the evidence. This evidence forms the basis for everything which lexicographers are able to say about the language and the words within it. In particular, The GAD is being made in an old fashioned manner, mostly manually.

Corpus analysis has been complemented by analysis of other types of evidences: the GAD makes extensive use of the database of the Institute for Linguistic Studies, the Great Dictionary Card Index System, created in the XIX century, starting from hand-written cards by Academician Jakob Grot (1812-1893) and  Academician Aleksey Shakhmatov (1864–1920), in Russian — Большая словарная картотека,  a collection of citations taken from Russian literature , from Pushkin (1799-1837) to the present day  from all the Russian-speaking countries of the world, including Runglish,  spoken either by cosmonauts and astronauts on board of the International Space Station or by the Russian immigrants in New York streets. The GAD is written on the basis of a proportionally focused   panoramic view of the Russian language: from the centre to periphery.

The general approach to defining in the GAD has a particular application for specialist vocabulary. Here, in the context of dealing with highly technical information, which may be unfamiliar to the non-specialist reader, the focus on clarity of expression is of great importance. Avoidance of over-technical terminology and an emphasis on explaining and describing as well as defining are balanced by the need to maintain a high level of professional words and accuracy. In many cases, additional technical and historical information is presented separately in an easily recognizable format within the Dictionary’s well formulated and systematized Reference Zone.

The GAD views the language from the perspective that Russian is an international language, the state language of the Russian Federation, all ex Soviet Republics[1] and countries of the Eastern Block[2] and millions who are spread in the Russian diaspora.

From Princess Dashkovas Dictionary of the Russian Academy (the first academic dictionary, Словарь Академїи Россїйской [1789-1794]),  to Alexey Vostokovs Dictionary of 1847 to Grots Dictionary of the Russian Language (Словарь русского языка, под редакцией академика Я. К. Грота, Т. 1. А-Д. СПб., 1895), the Institute for Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, facilitated the further progress in Russian lexicography, opening new pages in the history of the dictionary making art in Russia. The Dictionary of the Russian Academy was the main initial raison d’être of todays Institute for Linguistic Studies where the GAD is prepared and published by Nauka Publishing House. It is essential to mention that the sole reason of all academic dictionaries has not changed in the character of being the humble envoy of Russian literature and the correct usage of the Russian language from 1783 to the present day of the GAD by the settings of the Russian Federal standard about the state (not official) language of the Russian Federation[3].

The Great Academic Dictionary is not a historical dictionary. However it will only manifest some  inclinations towards certain historical elements throughout its text from А до Я.

■ БАС3: «ПАРОВОЗ, а, м. Локомотив с самостоятельной паросиловой установкой (паровой котел и паровая машина), с 1956 г. замененный тепловозом и электровозом. <…>… »[4].

          Historical dictionaries are made for one purpose only — to indicate the change that has taken place during a specific time period. This is not the goal of the Great Academic Dictionary. Normativity of the contemporary state of Russian literary language is what the Great Academic Dictionary is based upon and intended FOR EDUCATING ALL [100%] (V.I. Lenin): ALL schools, nonnatives, nonprofessionals, russophiles and russophobes, International Space Station etc. without exception and yet just 5,000 copies have been printed?!

          Furthermore, let it be known the postulate, that «Нормативный словарь — это не только словарь правильностей, но и словарь неправильностей речи. Обязательна только детальная, обстоятельная оценочная характеристика неправильностей, которая могла бы избегать ошибок в употреблении слов. Важно показать чрезвычайно богатое разнообразие современной русской лексики, чтобы читатель словаря мог знать, когда и что применимо и когда и чего следует избегать»[5].

The problems and insufficient factors related to the subject matter is mainly due to the fact that no other nation has ever produced such a unique category of dictionaries as the Institute for Linguistic Studies (formerly known as the Institute of the Language and Thought after academician Nikolay Marr) at (Leningrad 1924-1991) St. Petersburg. Most of multivolume dictionaries whether it is  the Great Academic Dictionary itself,  the legendary Russian Dictionary of the XVIII Century [Словарь русского языка XVIII века, выпуски 1-42  (АПлангерд) ИЛИ РАН, 1984, издание продолжается], Russian Dictionary of the XIX Century (in vitro), the Dictionary of Russian Regional Dialects (the new Dahl), [Словарь русских народных говоров, выпуски 1-42 (от А до слова Телепа), издание продолжается, 1965 -…, Ленинград/      Санкт-Петербург], Словарь обиходного русского языка Московской Руси XVI-XVII веков (АГущаor Russian Dictionary of XI-XVII Centuries [Словарь русского языка XI — XVII вв., выпуски 1-29 (от А до слова ТОЛЬМИЖЕ, издание продолжается, 1975-…, Ленинград/Москва] и т. д. are the direct results of  carefully laborious toils which have been impacted directly as a result of the ideas of the forerunners of Alma Mater of St. Petersburg (Leningrad) School of Lexicography after Academician Larin, the Institute for Linguistic Studies directed by Academician Nikolay Kazansky. The production and the card index system of Russian Dictionary of XI-XVII Centuries in the 1950‘s was moved from Leningrad to Moscow in the early stages of preparative works. Otherwise, the latter would have also been credited to the Institute for Linguistic Studies, as well.

The Great Academic Dictionary has always been a normative dictionary: «Являясь в основном толковым и нормативным, настоящий Словарь:

          дает филологические (не энциклопедические) толкования слов, отмечая устойчивые сочетания, речевые обороты, выражения;

          иллюстрирует значения, оттенки значений и особенности употребления слов цитатами из авторитетной художественной, научной и общественнополитической литературы (конца XVIII) XIXXX вв. (конца XVIII до начала XXI вв.), идя от современности к прошлому;

          характеризует слово со стороны грамматической, включая указания на особенности его произношения и написания;

          дает нормативные указания при словах ограниченного употребления (спец., в простор., устар. и др.);

          дает в справочном отделе, на основании русских лексикографических трудов и других источников, сведения по истории языка: словообразованию, правописанию, ударению слов и т. п., также справки об этимологическом составе слова, о заимствовании данного, слова из другого языка и иные подобные»[6]. «Оставаясь и на сегодняшний день самым полным сводом лексического богатства русского литературного языка «от Пушкина до наших дней», этот словарь представляет собою собрание ценнейших сведений о функционировании слов на протяжении рассматриваемого периода [XIXXXI вв.]»[7]. «Как нормативный словарь БАС, являясь хранителем культурной языковой традиции, в то же время освобожден от надуманных догм, тормозящих развитие языка, поэтому тактика нормализаторской работы лексикографов заключалась, как правило, в объяснении объективных процессов, происходящих в русском языке»[8]. «Наше время выдвигает перед словарями русского литературного языка основную задачу быть активным пособием по культуре русского языка. Эту задачу в свое время выдвинул В.И. Ленин, предложив составить [общедоступный] словарь ‹для учения всех›»[9].


«Если меня ругают все, значит, я сделал хороший справочник».

К.С. Горбачевич.


Almost all major Russian dictionaries of the XX century have adopted some slight characteristics of “historical identity in reverse” hidden under the normative mask. In this respect, a new undesirable category was created in Russian lexicography, “idiological-normative” or “historical-normative” which is a suicidal approach to a normative dictionary of current Russian. The greatest examples of some major lexicographical toils are as follows:


the Dictionary of Contemporary Russian Literary Language, the GAD, volumes I-XVII, Moscow & Leningrad, 1948-1965 (different style of lexicographical material presented from volumes I-IV and V-XVII);

■ GAD, second edition, volumes I-VI (discontinued edition), Moscow & Leningrad, 1991-1994;

the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language, Dmitry Ushakov et al., volumes 1-4, Moscow, 1935-1940 (without a card index system).

The only exclusions of excellence were:

the Dictionary of the Russian Language, Anastasia Evgeneva et al., Moscow & St. Petersburg, 1957-1961; second edition 1981-1984, including  the consecutive third and fourth enlarged editions with the corrigenda;

the Dictionary of Russian Language, Sergey Ozhegov, Moscow, 1949 (and all 24 consecutive editions from 1949 to 2004).

«В статье ‹От редакции› помещенной в 1-м томе Cловаря Современного Русского Литературного Языка, говорится уже о том, что словарь является “в основном толковым и нормативным«[10], и лишь (как дань прежним установкам) глухо, без какойлибо мотивировки, упоминается, что он является и «толковоисторическим«. Что конкретно означает термин «толковоисторический» до сих пор осталось неизвестным. Истинное положение дела было сформулировано в «Инструкции для составления ‘Словаря современного русского литературного языка’”, в которой сообщается, что словарь не является и не может быть историческим словарем»[11].

          An explanatory-historic dictionary on normative principles is deprived of the expansion of space due to the historical elements interfering with the entire process of semantic definition systemology and labeling. The space becomes even tighter especially for a purely normative dictionary, and sooner or later a natural death arrives to bury the dictionary. Meanwhile, an historical dictionary might become old, whereas an explanatory-historic dictionary on ideological principles becomes obsolete.  Old dictionaries on historical principles have yet many chances to be renewed or could be left as is and still function well. However, immediately obsolete normative dictionaries of Soviet origin are dead for good and nothing can revive them unless the previous social order is re-established, or it would be utilized as a base for Chinese-Russian and Russian-Chinese dictionaries[12]. The reader will find this unbearable obstacle on his own when definitions containing numerous words describing current social order are compared to the same words, present in the XX century and XXI century Russian lexicography. Our brilliant dictionaries and textbooks of the XX century make absolutely no sense in the XXI century.  Everything must change! This undesirable lexicographical moment could be eradicated by compiling the Dictionary of the XX Century of the Russian Language.

New, post Soviet, social order brought many changes by effecting the spoken and written Russian. This process formed its serious consequences on Russian lexicography by allowing itself to be developed and for it to jump over the XX century directly from XIX century to the XXI century. The massive gap between the XIX and XXI centuries has created a void (historical vacuum) in the continuous process of lexicography, pushing itself higher and further from its base. Therefore, in order to reach the XXI century Russian lexicography the reader must be literally forced to use the Dictionary of Contemporary Russian Literary Language and the PAD[13]  utilizing it as a platform. In another words, the gap created between the XIX and XXI centuries must be filled with the Dictionary of the XX Century on historical principles (which, unfortunately,  does not exist so far) or the PAD.

          In this respect, it is customary to start the XXI century with new hopes for the future by embracing our new Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language with patience and love, like anyone would do to a newborn baby. Based on our Russian national habitual pattern of being radically critical towards new lexicographical publications, this time it is highly recommended to eradicate the previously established critical approach. Critical reviews shall be reserved for positive and constructive reasons only,  reasons that would make the entire process of the making of the GAD easier by sending suggestions and advice to the editorial collegium of the GAD, located at the Department of Dictionaries at the Institute of Linguistic Studies,[14] St. Petersburg.

It is the year 2013. The Academy has already published 21 volumes out of total of 30 volumes, utilizing the Great Lexicographical Card Index System[15] at the Institute of Linguistic Studies. This dictionary was initially published as the Dictionary of Contemporary  Russian Literary Language in 17 volumes from 1948 to 1965 by a collective effort (see § 88, The History of the GAD, page 485).

«Большой академический словарь БАС является нормативным словарем, т. е. словарем, отражающим нормы современного употребления слов, и уже потому не представляет собой словарь строго исторического типа. Однако словарь, который ставит своей задачей описание лексики русского языка почти двух веков — от эпохи Пушкина до наших дней, — не может обойтись без экскурса в историю конкретных слов, так как в течение указанного времени некоторые лексические единицы в своем значении, употреблении, произношении и т.п. претерпели существенные изменения, которые, естественно, должны быть отражены в словаре.        Включение в Словарь лексики, стоящей вне пределов словарных норм современного литературного языка, но употреблявшейся в литературном языке XIX и начала XX веков, обусловлено тем, что русская классическая литература является неотъемлемым элементом современной культуры, читается и изучается широкими массами населения, а лексика и фразеология, встречающаяся в ней, составляют важную часть языкового сознания общества нашего времени. В то же время отражение в Словаре неологизмов объясняется появлением в последнее десятилетие в речевой деятельности общества слов, называющих новые явления общественной жизни, культуры, науки, техники, промышленности и т. д. Как устаревшие, так и новые слова нуждаются в регистрации в академическом толковом словаре и в филологическом объяснении[16].



[1] Ex Soviet Socialistic Republics: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belorussia, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

[2] Eastern Block countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia

[3] См. Государственный язык, Федеральный закон Российской Федерации от 1 июня 2005 г. N 53-ФЗ О государственном языке Российской Федерации.

[4]  [Новый] Большой Академический Словарь Русского Язык, том 15, стrраница 409, Москва & Санкт — Петербург, 2011.

See also the following: Герд А.С. К концепции нового академического словаря. Отбор слов в словарь // Очередные задачи русской лексикографии. – СПб., Изд-во ИЛИ РАН, 1995. С. 24-30.

[5] Филин Ф. П., О новом толковом словаре русского языка, Известия АН СССР. Отделение литературы и языка, Том XXII, Выпуск 3, страница 177-189, Москва, 1963.

[6] БАС1, От Редакции, том I, страница III, Москва & Ленинград, 1950.

[7] БАС2, Предисловие, том I, страница 4, Москва & Ленинград, 1991.

[8] БАС3, Предисловие, том 1, страница 3, Москва & Санкт — Петербург, 2004.

[9] К. С. Горбачевич (Ленинград), Ф. П. Филин (Москва), Ф. П. Сороколетов*(Ленинград), «О новом издании «Словаря современного русского литературного языка» (в семнадцати томах) // Вопросы языкознания, # 3, Май — Июнь, страницы 1-19, АН СССР, Институт языкознания, Москва, 1976.

[10] Словарь современного русского литературного языка, том I, страница III, Москва & Ленинград, 1950.

[11] Ф. П. Филин, О новом толковом словарь русского языка, Известия АН СССР, Отделение литературы и языка, Том XXII, Выпуск 3, страница 177-189, Москва, 1963.

[12] Ли Ша, Новый русскокитайский словарь, Пекин, 1992.

[13] The PAD or Petite Academic Dictionary, МАС или Малый академический словарь.

[14] 199053, Санкт-Петербург, Тучков пер., 9 Институт лингвистических исследований Российской академии наук, Группа Академического словаря, руководитель Александр Сергеевич Герд.

[15] Большая словарная картотека (БСК) Института лингвистических исследований РАН (ИЛИ РАН).

[16] Соловьев Н. В., Общие сведения о  Словаре // БАС, том 1 страница 7, Москва & Санкт-Петербург, 2004.

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