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Exordium

IBASСтатья взята из: Kaрамян М., Головань С. История Большого Академического Словаря Русского Языка, стр. 25-29: Σίγμα: Лондон, Сан-Франциско, Акапулько, 2012.

 

«Ճանաչել զիմաստութիւն եւ զխրատ, իմանալ զբանս յանճարոյ…»

Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց (361-440)

 

и все что люди знают,
а не просто восприняли слухом как шум,
может быть высказано в трех словах.

– Фердинанд Кюрнбергер (18211879)

 

«Объяснительный словарь есть дело лингвиста, который бы для этого уже родился, который бы заключил в своей природе к тому преимущественные, особенные способности, носил бы в себе самом внутренне ухо, слышащее гармонию языка. Явления таких лингвистов всегда и повсюду бывали редки».

– Н. В. Гоголь (18091852)

     This Monograph, like many others, began with a chance discovery[1]. In the year 2006 my colleagues[2] sent me a package which contained a note in it asking for my immediate attention and profound observation to review the book they had sent to me. The package contained three copies of volume 4 of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language (hereafter GAD3) or Большой академический словарь русского языка, Новый БАС или БАС3.

The reason for my being chosen for completing this occupational persecution as a task and undertaking this responsibility  of fulfilling such an assignment still remains under the question mark! A linguist may have made lexicography as his profession, but I was born with a dictionary in my hand. I have spent collectively at least more than 60 years in different studies of practical and theoretical aspects of Armenian, Russian, Bulgarian, English, Greek and Latin languages; perhaps considerably longer than some genuine philologists who claim a resolute ownership of lexicography.

Great dictionaries are reserved for great men! Finding the usefulness and uselessness of a dictionary is a complex and perplexed academic phenomenon which comes naturally into the light before anyone else would think about it. This is the main reason why my editorial collegium chose my directly sincere involvement and collaboration to complete this exhaustingly uneasy task of evaluating the Great Academic Dictionary.

Volumes 1 through 5 (letters А–Д inclusive) of the GAD have been thoroughly read and rigorously analyzed. I kept a copy of volume 4 in three different locations . Recently those three copies of volume 4 ended their journey under one roof in Savannah, Georgia USA where I reside and work with graduate  students from several universities by guiding  or opposing dissertational proposals; and write or finally edit lectures for master classes on various subjects.

The Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language was the best news ever from Russian since December 25, 1991. Тhe Institute for Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the principle scientific-research school of planning, compiling, writing, editing and publishing one of many dictionary projects in Russia ever since Her Imperial Majesty, Catherine the Great decreed the establishment of the Russian Academy for the purpose of making the Russian Dictionary, «Словарь Академии Российской, тт. IVI, Санкт-Петербург, 17891794: первый толковый словарь русского языка, содержащий 43 357 слов в 6 частях. Работа над словарём началась в 1783 году и заняла 11 лет. Словарь содержал элементы этимологического словаря: слова располагались по общему корню, образуя разветвленные смысловые гнёзда. Пользуясь словарём, можно было определить, откуда произошло слово; кроме того, издание включало множество новых слов в русском языке, в частности введенные М.В. Ломоносовым в науку термины»[SG][3].

This was just the beginning of a long and fascinating story of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language.

     In the light of the XXI century scientific lexicographical conception (i.e. types of lexicographical data about words and its strategy of presentation within the structure of dictionary entries), analyzed and discussed in the Monograph altogether justifies and determines the facade of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language. Lexicographical conception itself, in a considerable degree, is determined by the condition of the lexicographical notion in the corresponding epoch. Currently, the distinguishing factor of this phenomenon is that lexicography itself has began playing a significant role in contemporary life and the dazzling Russian culture.

In its wide spectrum of sense, the amalgamating effect of synthesis in philology and culture is the distinguishing and differentiating characteristic of contemporary lexicography, the essence of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language.

     A significantly massive and immense proportion of any civilized nation’s culture is mainly realized, recognized and comprehended through its language. First and foremost, the Russian language, in its entire substance of wealth and superiority, is predominantly documented, registered and archived in its numerously diverse dictionaries.

     Очень понятно, что Большой академический словарь русского языка организован и написан по другому – в старом филологическом духе. Этот словарь должен отразить то, что происходило в нашей жизни и литературе в XIXXXI вв. Советский период невозможно вычеркнуть из истории России и российской лексикографии. Менталитет нашего народа находил свое крепкое место в нашей литературе и академической лексикографии ХХ века.      Современный русский литературный язык является государственным языком Российской Федерации (Федеральный закон от 1 июня 2005 г. N 53-ФЗ «О государственном языке Российской Федерации». Принят Государственной Думой 20 мая 2005 года. Одобрен Советом Федерации 25 мая 2005 года) [Станислав А. Головань].

     Разумеется, что «любой словарь есть важный инструмент для выражения национальной гордости и укоренения патриотизма»[4].

Ultimately, the opus on the History of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language would be insufficient and indeterminate if other major lexicographical toils, such as Das Deutsche Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm, le Dictionnaire de lAcadémie française, le Dictionnaire de la langue française de Émile Maximilien Paul Littré, Noah Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language and Dr. James Murray’s The Oxford English Dictionary would not be juxtaposed against the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language as a comparatively justifying instrument. There was a firm decision made by Dr. Cross to include the entire prefaces to major dictionaries into the HGAD, where the reader will find more information sincerely related to the lexicon.

Furthermore, the History of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language will reveal some captivating lexicographical facts and conceptions of theoretical and practical aspects of the GAD based on philological (not ideological[5]) changes; and interests mostly related to its two previously published consecutive editions, commenced from Jacob Grot’s Dictionary of the Russian Language, БАС1, its second edition, and the currently prepared, new, the third edition: Большой академический словарь русского языка.

     The History of the Great Academic Dictionary is written and edited based on veritable facts only. As a review to the Great Academic Dictionary, the Monograph not only proportionally focuses on the Great Academic Dictionary and its theoretical and practical essence, but it also demonstrates itself to be an example of a seriously written mock dissertation proposal for students (See Appendix 1, p. 495).

Besides the main subject matter, there are several controversial and provocative issues presented within this Monograph for which the author of this project is to be criticized and blamed for. The reader of this Monograph will feel big or small, significant or insignificant, intelligent or ignorant (see the III paragraph to the Foreword by Jack L. Cross on page 11). In another words, there is absolutely no middle ground left for the reader, leaving no room to swing a cat by the tail. That is all up to the reader’s prerogative.   According to Lyudmila Kruglikova, if the reader of the Great Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language is confused about the GAD and what it is all about, please exit the Dictionary: «То, что находится за этими пределами, отражается в других лексикографических справочниках» (Kruglikova, HGAD:45). A similar modus operandi is applied to this very Monograph by suggesting the reader to exit this book gracefully, passing by and be better off for not having his or her intellectual bones crushed!

When it comes to criticism, everything is seen completely in a different light. All kinds of criticism, regardless of its positive or negative nature, is the most powerful tool for publicity. Above all, there is no such thing as bad publicity or succès de scandale.

Conclusively, by summing up the achievements of Russian academic lexicography in the XX century, it is very obvious that studies in lexicography and science about the language is always in constant development. Therefore, plenty of extra material is consciously included within  Terminal Objectives which have already become a solid rock foundation of accomplishments in Soviet Russian academic lexicography by the Institute for Linguistic Studies and its predecessors.

GAD Page28

Ссылки:

* The author expresses his gratitude to Professor Alexander Heard** for his immense guidance and Doctor Lyudmila Kruglikova et al. from the Department of Dictionaries at the Institute for Linguistic Studies  of the RAS for corrections, suggestions and supplements.

** Some sources indicate a different spelling as a result of direct transliteration from the Russian language: Alexander Gerd (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Capitali/Alexandr_Gerd)

[1] Lynda Mugglestone, Lost for Words, The Hidden Story of the Oxford English Dictionary, Preface, page XI, Yale University Press, New Haven & London, 2005.

[2] Read-Reread Comprehension Research Project USA, lead by previous members of Los Estudios Filológicos Por La Causa, Los Angeles, USA and Acapulco, Mexico.

[3] Ed. by Stanislav Golovan.

[4] М Карамян, И. Ризенталь. Англолиз, с. 1317. Акапулко: Σίγμα, 2006 (издание на английском языке).

[5] This subject is thoroughly covered by Peter A. Druzhinin, Ph.D. in his latest monumental toil, “Ideology and Philology” (volumes 1-2, text in Russian. Publication ISBN: 978-5-86793-982-3 (v. 1) , 978-5-86793-983-0 (v. 2). <http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/5867939820>, <http://www.ozon.ru/context/detail/id/18296727/>.

The entire material within these two volumes of toil are based on numerous facts and information whether published, previously unknown sources or classified cases, the author elucidates the reason why and how the Stalinist ideology was employed especially to oppress Soviet science, to influence both on political and economic life of the country, and at the same time not sparing even philology from the terror. The author revitalizes and recreates the big impressive picture of the damaging results of totalitarian regime when it is unleashed onto the humanitarian mind. In another words the «Ideology and Philology» resolutes on «an Ideological War» on Soviet science, which left behind an ugly picture in the history of Soviet science and philology likewise.

 

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